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Engineering   Fabrication   Maintenance

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Engineering   Fabrication   Maintenance

By nothingbutnet, Jun 7 2017 01:09AM

Although the concrete polishing industry is relatively new, it is developing at a rapid pace. It is only recently that professionals are focusing on processing methods, such as concrete grinding and polishing, although they have been performed for about 10 years. These professionals include -


-Engineers

-General Contractors

-Property Owners

-Interior Designers

-Architects


People who have researched with the aim of understanding these methods, are being richly rewarded as the market continues to expand.


Birth Pains


New industries also face obstacles which must be overcome. Contractors who are just entering the concrete polishing business Melbourne, believe that it is limited to the laying of abrasives over concrete. The process however, is quite technical and involves many variables. Without the necessary experience, the desired results may not be achieved by the contractor. They must understand the ins and outs, so that they can adequately overcome any obstacles which may be presented.



Concrete Grinding in Melbourne is a Big Process


A lot of terminology is misused, since the industry is in the stage of infancy. 'Concrete Polishing' is a mechanical process by which the concrete surface is cut or refined, to reach a desired result. Multiple abrasive agents have to used appropriately within the grits, to create polished concrete.


Certain methods can affect the low, medium or high gloss of sheen which can reveal itself within the honing and grinding category, but has not gone through the same steps as the process of concrete polishing.


Categories and Processing Methods


Ground Concrete - This is the lowest category of processing methods on concrete surfaces. Grit abrasive from about 50-grit resin and beneath, is referred to as a 'grinding step'. This 'ground concrete' surface appears to be 'flat', as it has a low sheen and no reflective quality.


Honed Concrete - This type of concrete surface uses a method known as a 'honing' method, which is any kind of grit abrasive ranging between 100-grit resin to 400-grit resin. The result will be a surface with a low, medium or high quality of sheen, and will appear to have a slight reflection.


Polished Concrete - This is the highest category of methods used by concrete polishers. A 'polished concrete' method is any grit abrasive process which is at least 800-grit (usually 1,500 to 3,000). The resulting surface will have a mirror-like reflection, as well as a glass-like finish.


The Variables


The 3 processes of grinding, honing and polishing are more technical than most people realize. Several variables are involved, which affect the end results of each process or method. The contractor may be able to control the results in some cases. Those within the contractor's control include the equipment quality, steps and actions, the speed at which the steps are taken and the type of abrasives to use.


The flatness of floors, levellers, and concrete mix design are outside of the control of the contractor. A professional craftsman should know how the variables work and how they should be used, in order to influence the results.


Residential Surfaces - In the entire process, one of the most crucial variables is the concrete. In residential projects, the concrete mix usually has a low PSI (2,500 or less), and that has been hand-troweled. If the PSI is lower the concrete will not polish up as well, as its surface will be more dense and hand-troweled, resulting in a lot of highs and lows in the surface.


The professionals also should have a high level of expertise in civil engineering Melbourne, especially if a high level of traffic is expected in the concrete area. For driveways to be durable, they have to be properly prepared with a great deal of skill. This is available by using REO bars, which are designed by metal fabricators Melbourne. With a steel fabricator, the concrete will be stronger overall, as the bars can withstand more abrasion and weight.




Commercial Surfaces - The concrete mix used on these surfaces have a higher PSI (from 3,500 upwards). It is machine-troweled in open areas, and hand-troweled in the corner and tighter areas. Concrete with a high PSI will polish up better, as a result of its density, and will have less highs and lows.


A contractor will be able to achieve the desired results, if beforehand they know how a concrete slab is required to and will 'polish up' a specific setting. The customer will get a better floor at a lower cost and the contractor will receive great reviews and referrals.


The outcome may not necessarily be the same because 2 contractors are using the same type of grit. It is therefore important that contractors take the necessary time to research and learn as much as possible, about these methods and processes, so that they can achieve the ultimate concrete processing goals.




By nothingbutnet, Nov 17 2016 02:32AM

Over time, floors get scratched, cracked, discoloured and lifeless. What was once shiny will inevitably become dull. When this happens, homeowners are often torn between keeping the old and bringing in something new. Both have their own pros and cons. One of the most popular options is concrete resurfacing which allows the old to stay while creating fresh look.


Concrete Resurfacing Explained


We are living in an age of consumerism where people have gotten used to buying and discarding items on a regular basis. Instead of fixing broken things, we simply throw them away and look for the latest products to replace them. Floors may indeed be replaced if they are no longer viable but otherwise it may be wiser to have them restored.


By choosing this path, you can have stunning floors with minimum fuss. The contractor will simply coat the old with a thin overlay made from cement or polymer. This hides the damage and creates a perfect surface. It's also a good method for concrete leveling, repair and polishing.



The Benefits of Floor Rejuvenation


If you hire a concrete polishing Melbourne contractor, you can look forward to the following:


1. Affordable rates. The days of never-ending delays are over. With affordable rates, homeowners can get things started immediately without worrying about the expenses. The materials needed are relatively few and workers can finish the job rather quickly. Expect to shell out about a third of the cost of a new flooring.


2. Effective solution. This approach can be applied to virtually all kinds of concrete in residential and commercial establishments alike. If you want your office to be more presentable to clients or you wish for your home to look great for guests, then this is the way to go.


3. Multiple choices. Restoration doesn't mean you're stuck with the old look. It is possible to get a new design with your choice of colours, finishes and textures. There is an endless variety of combinations that you can try. Simulate the appearance of marble or other more expensive materials. Add a non-slip coating for safety. Create custom patterns that suit your personality. It's time to turn your ideas into reality.


4. Efficient path. Concrete leveling will not be a problem. The products used will spread evenly by themselves and workers will double-check just to make sure. In one go, all of the unsightly cracks will be hidden from view. The chipping and discoloration will no longer be visible. The process will be quick and easy. It's certainly more convenient than having to break up the old floor just to install a new one. For those who want minimal household disturbance, this is the most efficient path.


5. Durable installation. Due to their position, floors are quite prone to wear and tear. People are always walking all over them, heavy items get dropped on the surface, and furniture leaves marks as they are moved around. These should not be a cause for concern with slab rectification. Owners can be assured of long-term protection from damage. There will be special coatings on the surface to keep things looking flawless and shiny.


6. Stress-free maintenance. All it takes to maintain the concrete floor is an occasional application of a protective stain. Do this once a year and you should be good to go, or twice if you are feeling particularly motivated. This process is quick and easy. It's definitely a less intensive chore compared to the maintenance requirements of other types of surfaces.


7. Excellent returns. As renovation costs money, owners are justified in wanting the cost to pay dividends. Those who call on concrete polishing Melbourne professionals can be assured that their money is well-spent. The rooms will instantly look so much better and the people who use them will be safer as well. Non-slip coatings reduce the chances of accidents around the house so there are less worries about painful and costly injuries. Everyone who sees the new floors will be amazed at the transformation. For business owners, this is particularly important as first impressions can make or break deals.





What to Do with Damaged Floors


While slab rectification is powerful, it has its own limitations. This is not recommended for floors which are heavily damaged. Those with large cracks and holes will not be so easily repaired by pouring a layer of concrete on top. Heavy grinding is required. There might even be structural issues underneath that require a massive overhaul.


Hiring a Concrete Polishing Melbourne Specialist


It's a delicate job with much at stake. Be sure to give it to a contractor with excellent reputation and decades of experience for best results. There are quite a few companies in Melbourne offering the service so take your time checking their backgrounds. Compare their rates, reviews, warranty, and overall value for money.



Read more on concrete polishing in Melbourne here.

By nothingbutnet, Oct 26 2016 10:44PM

In any construction project, strength and durability are the essential features verified engineers from all over the world look for. This is mainly the reason why structural construction specialists prefer using steel for their projects. Everyone wants a building--be it residential, commercial or industrial--that can stand for a long time despite all the extensive damages it receives time and again. This not only applies to construction projects but practically all products. One way to ensure that any product or building can withstand the test of time is to use quality materials during the building process.



A Tough Internal Framework



There is a wide array of materials needed for various commercial, residential and infrastructure applications. Different tools are needed for different operations however, there are equipment which are commonly used for all types building project.



The very first thing structural engineers check is the support system of the infrastructure. It is highly necessary to have a strong understructure as it holds up the total weight of the finished project. The stronger the materials used, the higher the level of security and longevity. Engineers will always have to adhere to the standards given for the materials to be used.



For any construction project, the bracing system serves as the backbone for the overall structure. Using substandard reinforced masonry agent is guaranteed to make the whole project fail spectacularly. Each part serves different purposes and the stronger each individual component is the stronger the final result will be.



Securing the Bracing System



A bracing system ensures that the project can handle considerable weight for a longer length of time. This responsible for the load distribution, control of the dimension, and control main beam buckling. For this, rod bracings are used.



Hume steel fabricates high-quality rod braces for commercial, residential, and infrastructure purposes. All of the items are created in accordance with Australian standard and guidelines. The bars follow the

standard length of up to 7m which can have either a painted finish or a hot dip galvanized finish depending on your preference.



The standard 16mm round bar is used to detach the top and bottom layers of concrete slab mesh. It can also have whichever finishing you prefer to have. It is designed by verified engineers and fabricated with the utmost attention by experienced steel fabricators.


Deformed Reinforcement Bar Fabrication



Another reinforcement steel product which Hume Steel creates is the deformed bar. However, unlike its name it will no way deform the appearance of the building. It is mainly used to strengthen fabric sheets and metal mesh. This used for several kinds of applications which may have certain specifications to meet. To cater to the various uses for deformed reinforcing bars, we offer customized fabrication. However, we only offer bars approved Australian Standards which come in these metric sizes: M10-12-16-20-24-30-32



Top Grade Threaded Rod



This rebar is designed to secure and space clamp types, and mainly for tension. It is also known as a stud, and it comes in two forms: full-bodied studs and undercut threaded rod. It is available in metric thread custom lengths. We also fabricate custom-order threaded rod and even all-threads.



First-Class Starter Bars



Derived from D500N reinforcement bar, better known as REO is designed to tie concrete walls to slabs. These can be taken from deformed bars, and then cut and shaped to get the preferred design. Our steel fabricators can bend the starter bar upon your request.



Our products are designed by licensed engineers and certified metal fabricators. We also offer customization which meets the conditions of AS/NZS 4671 to guarantee that you have nothing short of sterling quality.



Let The Professionals Take Responsibility



Steel fabrication is a serious matter. Your safety and comfort are at risk. No one wants to have, or cause injuries. Which is why it is imperative that you call on experienced metal fabricators. Hume Steel is more than happy to answer your steel fabrication needs. All you have to do is call 03 9357 0672 or 0405 512 529. You can also drop us a visit at 1/9 Merri Concourse Campbellfield, Melbourne, Victoria 3061. Let our engineers help you out with your metal work needs.





By nothingbutnet, Aug 22 2016 02:00AM

The Background of Stainless Steel


If you are looking for information on stainless steel fabrication, it pays to have a little background information on the subject. Stainless steel is alloy that contains iron and it is used in many ways. Note that an alloy is a substance that contains two or more chemical elements. Stainless steel is valuable because it contains a high level of chromium. This makes it highly resistant to stain or rust. As a rule, 12-20 percent of the alloy must be chromium. This is the acid test and it is an indication that your stainless steel has the right quality. It is not easy for manufacturers of this product to produce inferior quality stainless steel and pass them of as authentic products. This is because there are standards manufacturers are expected to maintain. More than 57 alloys are recognized as standard alloys. Stainless steel is used in many industries and they are also used in different applications. Some of these include rail cars, snow skis, building exteriors and chemical processing plants. Stainless steel is also used in the automobile industry. The engine, the chassis, tubing for fuel lines, fasteners and exhaust trim are all made of stainless steel.




Every year, approximately 200,000 tons of stainless steel is used in the food processing industry in the North American continent. This is nickel-containing stainless steel and it is used for food storing, cooking and handling equipment. This particular type of stainless steel is also used in different stages of food collection, processing and storage. In the context of the food and beverage industry, some of the advantages of stainless steel are durability, corrosion resistance and economy. In addition, this substance is easy to clean and also helps preserve food flavor. According to official figures from the US Department of Commerce, total shipments in 1992 totaled over 1.5 tons. In fact, the exact figure was 1,514,222 tons.


There are different types of stainless steel and they are categorized according to their microstructure. Duplex stainless steels contain equal amounts of austenite and ferrite. Stainless steels of this variety have superior resistance to cracking due to chloride stress corrosion. They also provide much better resistance to crevice corrosion and pitting. For this reason, duplex stainless steels are used extensively in refineries, sea water piping installations, gas processing plants and pulp and paper plants.


One of the most common forms of stainless steel is the austenitic stainless steel. This type contains 6 percent nickel and austenite. Austenite is a carbon-containing iron with a cubic structure. It has relatively good corrosion resistance and it is highly ductile (ductility is the ability of the material to bend without breaking). Other forms of stainless steel are Ferritic stainless steel and Martensitic stainless steel. The former is difficult to weld but it has a better resistance to stress corrosion. The latter contains iron with a needle-like structure.

Raw materials


Raw materials for stainless steel are readily available. Some of these raw materials are carbon, nickel, iron ore, silicon, chromium, manganese and nitrogen. The properties or qualities of the final alloy are tailored by simply varying the amounts of these natural elements. For instance, nitrogen improves corrosion resistance and this makes it ideal for use in duplex stainless steels. Nitrogen also improves ductility and this makes it a vital component of stainless steel.

The Manufacturing Process


The manufacturing of stainless steel or stainless steel fabrication involves a number of processes. The first step is to melt the stainless steel.

To manufacture stainless steel, the raw materials like chromium, silicon, iron ore and nickel are melted in an electric furnace. This process takes between 8 and 12 hours. The next step is to cast the mixture into one of several shapes. These may include billets, blooms or slabs. The steel is heat treated then it is cleaned and polished to give it the perfect finish. After this step, the steel is packaged and sent to manufacturers. The manufacturers join and weld the steel to get the desired shapes and the product is ready for the market.

1. Melting and Casting


The raw materials are melted in an electric furnace at very high temperature. This process takes 8-12 hours and when it is finished, the product is cast into semi-finished forms. These are basically billets round or square shapes of 1.5 inches or 3.8 centimeters thick) or blooms (rectangular shapes). These semi-finished forms also include rods, slabs and tube rounds.


2. Forming


The next step is the forming operation. This begins with hot rolling. During this process, the steel is heated and passed through huge rolls. Slabs are formed into strip, sheet and plate. Blooms and billets are formed into bar and wire. Bars are available in different grades and come in squares, rounds, hexagons or octagons. Wire, plate and strip are usually measured in centimeters and inches. The measurement for wire is usually up to 0.5 inch (1.27 centimeters) in diameter or size. Plate is usually over 10 inches wide (25.4 centimeters) and 0.1875 inch (.47 centimeters) thick. Sheet is less than 0.1875 inch (0.47 centimeters) thick and 24 inches (61 centimeters) wide. Strip is less than 0.185 inch (0.47 centimeters) thick and less than 24 inches (61 centimeters wide).

3. Heat treatment


After the stainless steel is formed, most of these products go through a process called annealing. This is a heat treatment process in which steel is first heated then cooled under the right conditions to soften the metal and relieve internal stress. The heat treatment process can lead to different results. For instance, the higher-temperature aging process produces a tougher material with a lower strength while a lower aging temperature produce high strength steel with low fracture toughness.


Note that the heating rate to reach the required aging temperature does not usually affect the properties of steel but the cooling rate does. The required heating temperature for the aging process is 900-1000degrees Fahrenheit (482 to 537 degrees Celsius). On the other hand, a particular cooling process requires water quenching the material in an ice-water bath for at least two hours. The required temperature for this process is usually 35-degree Fahrenheit (1.6 degree Celsius.


Heat treatment and water quenching are technical processes and this is why they should be done the right way to get perfect results. The type of heat treatment you use depends on the type of steel you are dealing with. Ferritic, martensitic and austentic steels require different heating processes. Austenitic steels are usually heated to temperatures of 1900 degrees Fahrenheit and above (1037 degrees Celsius). Note that water quenching is used for thick sections while air blasting or air cooling is used for thin sections. Cleaning part surfaces before heat treatment is a great idea because this helps get rid of contaminants. This also helps you achieve the proper heat treatment results.

4. Descaling


Annealing leads to a scale or a build-up to form on the steel. When this happens, the build-up can be removed through a number of processes. Two of the most common processes to remove this build-up are pickling and electro-cleaning. In electro-cleaning, an electric current is used to get rid of the scale. For the picking process, a nitric-hydrofluoric acid bath is used to descale the steel.

5. Cutting


Cutting the steel is a vital process and it is necessary for two reasons. First, it enables you get the desired blank shape or size. It also helps you trim the parts to the required size. Mechanical cutting of stainless steel is done by a number of methods. These include straight shearing and circle shearing. Straight shearing is accomplished by guillotine knives while circle shearing is done by circular knives. Horizontal and vertical cutting can also be accomplished by using high speed blades. Blanking and nibbling are also used to cut irregular shapes. Cutting can also be accomplished by flame cutting and plasma jet cutting.




6. Finishing


Surface finishing is a vital part of the stainless steel fabrication process. Some surfaces require smooth finishing while other products require rough finishing.


Finishing can also be categorized in accordance with the specific result at the end of the process and the method used for finishing. Examples are the dull finish, the bright finish and the mirror finish. Some processes used in finishing are buffing and tumbling.

7. Manufacturing at the fabricator or end user


After the finished goods are packed and shipped to end user or the fabricator, a number of other steps are required. A little more shaping is accomplished by some methods such as press forming, roll forming, extrusion, press drawing, forging and extrusion. Further heat treating and cleaning processes are also required.


The process of joining different parts of stainless steel together is accomplished by welding. In this context, the most common forms of welding are fusion welding and resistance welding. After the different parts of the stainless steel are joined by welding, the welded areas are usually cleaned and polished.

Quality Control


Stainless steel in Australia must meet the specifications developed by the Australian Standards. This applies to mechanical properties like toughness and corrosion resistance. In some cases, metallography is used to ensure that the products meet the right standards.




The future


The use of stainless steel and super stainless products is expanding in the global market. This has led to new and better facilities to ensure that the right quality is delivered. In addition, the new Clean Air Act means that stainless steel manufacturers will comply with the new laws.



In addition, environmental laws are forcing refineries and petrochemical industries to recycle secondary cooling water in closed systems. In response to this demand, manufacturers are developing corrosion resistant steel products. It is expected that the use of duplex stainless steel tubing will increase because it costs less than other materials.


It is estimated that stainless steel usage per vehicle will rise from the present 55to 66 pounds (25 to 30 kilograms) to above 100 pound (45 kilograms) by the beginning of the new century. It is also expected that stainless steel will be used for new applications like long-life exhaust systems, brake lines and composite bumpers.


In addition, new products are being developed with better quality and super strength. Some of these are the ferritic iron-base alloys that contain 8-12 percent Cr for magnetic applications. There is also austenitic stainless steel that has extremely low sulphur content. This is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and semiconductors.



Extensive research is still going on but the effort of committed researchers is yielding positive results already. Japanese researchers have been able to develop a powerful corrosion-resistant steel. This product returns to its original shape upon heating so this makes it truly unique. It is expected that this application will be useful for fire alarms, springs, clips, pipe fittings and fasteners and clamps. There is also an improved martensitic stainless steel that is just right for instrument rolling-contact bearings. This product reduces vibration levels and has improved life expectancy. This product also has much better surface finish when compared to other materials.

By nothingbutnet, Jun 16 2016 05:59AM

The U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) is strongly considering additional antidumping and countervailing duties on imports of Chinese steel. The ITC believes that China is subsidizing its steel manufacturers, allowing them to sell products at below cost prices in the United States to the detriment of American steel producers.


The formal decision will be made in two separate cases, the first expected at the end of June and the second in July. The ITC investigation was prompted by the Commerce Department's recommendation in late May of new tariffs of over 200 percent on two separate categories of Chinese steel products. The Commerce Department recommended smaller tariffs on Japanese, Italian, and Indian steel imports in addition to its Chinese decision.


The first category covered is cold-rolled steel products, regardless of paint, varnish, or coating with nonmetallic substances such as plastic. The second category encompasses flat-rolled steel products coated, plated, or otherwise clad in corrosion-resistant metals such as zinc or aluminum. The second category also includes zinc, aluminum, nickel, and iron alloys, regardless of any corrugation, paint, varnish, lamination, or nonmetallic coating.




There are many dissenting voices to the Commerce Department's recommendation. Daniel Pearson, former chairman of the ITC and currently working at the Cato Institute as a senior fellow in trade policy studies, points out that 149 antidumping and countervailing duties are already attached to Chinese steel imports. To date, these duties have not restored the commercial viability of American steel, "so it's folly to think that a handful more would make any difference," according to Pearson.


While Pearson acknowledges that the Chinese steel industry's 1,200+ million metric ton steel capacity represents a challenge for all other nations attempting to compete in the industry, he also questions whether increased tariffs could have a detrimental impact on the American economy. U.S. steel has not been a focal point of the American economy in decades, but other American businesses depend on cheap foreign steel in order to manufacture their products. Pearson called for a cost-benefit analysis to ensure that the ITC does not inadvertently harm the U.S. economy.


As of this writing, the ITC has not committed its decision one way or the other. Regardless of its choice, a large impact can be expected for industrial steel fabrication in Melbourne.



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